Basic Research

Affect and Emotion


779 Slovic, P., & Vastfjall, D. (2013). The more who die, the less we care: Psychic numbing and genocide. In A. J. Oliver (Ed.), Behavioral public policy (pp. 94–114). UK: Cambridge University Press.

736 Slovic, P., Zionts, D., Woods, A. K., Goodman, R., & Jinks, D. (2013). Psychic numbing and mass atrocity. In E. Shafir (Ed.), The behavioral foundations of public policy (pp. 126-142). NJ: Princeton University Press.

643 Svenson, O. (2013). Motivation, decision theory, and human decision making. In S. Kreitler (Ed.), Cognition and motivation: Forging an interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 307-320). New York: Cambridge University Press.

794 Västfjäll, D., & Slovic, P. (2013). Cognition and emotion in judgment and decision making. In M. D. Robinson, E. R. Watkins, & E. Harmon-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of cognition and emotion (pp. 252–271). New York: Guilford Press.

781 Weller, J. A., Dieckmann, N. F., Tusler, M., Mertz, C. K., Burns, W. J., & Peters, E. (2013). Development and testing of an abbreviated numeracy scale: A Rasch analysis approach. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 26, 198–212. doi: 10.1002/bdm.1751

787 Weller, J. A., & Fisher, P. A. (2013). Decision-making deficits among maltreated children. Child Maltreatment, 18, 184–194. doi: 10/1177/1077559512467846

788 Weller, J. A., Shackleford, C., Dieckmann, N. F., & Slovic, P. (2013). Possession attachment predicts cell phone use while driving. Health Psychology, 32, 379–387.

767 Burns, W. J., Peters, E., & Slovic, P. (2012). Risk perception and the economic crisis: A longitudinal study of the trajectory of perceived risk. Risk Analysis, 32, 659-677.

801 Campbell-Arvai, V., Arvai, J., & Kalof, L. (2012). Motivating sustainable food choices: The role of nudges, value orientation, and information provision. Environment and Behavior. Advance online publication. doi:10.1177/0013916512469099

778 Dickert, S., Vastfjall, D., Kleber, J., & Slovic, P. (2012). Valuations of human lives: Normative expectations and psychological mechanisms of (ir)rationality. Synthese, 189, 95–105. doi: 10.1007/s11229-012-0137-4

755 Levin, I. P., Xue, G., Weller, J. A., Reimann, M., Lauriola, M., & Bechara, A. (2012). A neuropsychological approach to understanding risk-taking for potential gains and losses. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 6(15).

753 Peters, E., Kunreuther, H., Sagara, N., Slovic, P., & Schley, D. R. (2012). Protective measures, personal experience, and the affective psychology of time. Risk Analysis, 32, 2084–2097. doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2012.01810.x

784 Rosoff, H., John, R., Burns, W. J., & Siko, R. (2012). Structuring uncertainty and conflicting objectives for life or death decisions following an urban biological catastrophe. Journal of Integrated Disaster Risk Management, 1, 1–21.

777 Slovic, P. (2012). The "value" of smoking cigarettes. Health, Risk & Society, 14, 409-414.

785 Slovic, P. (2012). Communication challenges in managing social and economic impacts of emerging and infectious diseases. In Emerging and persistent infectious diseases (EPID): Focus on the societal and economic context (pp. 54–64). Fairfax, VA: Institute on Science for Global Policy

760 Slovic, P., Västfjäll, D., & Gregory, R. (2012). Informing decisions to prevent genocide. SAIS Review, 32(1), 33–47.

665 Slovic, P., & Zionts, D. (2012). Can international law stop genocide when our moral intuitions fail us? In R. Goodman, D. Jinks, & A. K. Woods (Eds.), Understanding social action, promoting human rights. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

766 Smith, N., & Leiserowitz, A. (2012). The rise of global warming skepticism: Exploring affective image associations in the United States over time. Risk Analysis, 32, 1021–1032. doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2012.01801.x

744 Svenson, O., Eriksson, G., & Gonzalez, N. (2012). Braking from different speeds: Judgments of collision speed if a car does not stop in time. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 45, 487-492.

803 Svenson, O., Eriksson, G., Slovic, P., Mertz, C. K., & Fuglestad, T. (2012). Effects of main actor, outcome and affect on biased braking speed judgments. Judgment and Decision Making, 7, 235–243.

780 Weller, J. A., & Thulin, E. W. (2012). Do honest people take fewer risks? Personality correlates of risk-taking to achieve gains and avoid losses in HEXACO space. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 923–926.

748 Burns, W. J., Reilly, C., & Slovic, P. (2011, December). The attack on Flight 253, the Haiti earthquake, and the Japanese disaster: A longitudinal look at emotional reactions, risk-related behaviors, and support for policy measures. The CIP Report, pp. 22-24, 34.

745 Dickert, S., Kleber, J., Peters, E., & Slovic, P. (2011). Numeracy as a precursor to pro-social behavior: The impact of numeracy and presentation format on the cognitive mechanisms underlying donation decisions. Judgment and Decision Making, 6, 638-650.

687 Dickert, S., Sagara, N., & Slovic, P. (2011). Affective motivations to help others: A two-stage model of donation decisions. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making,, 24, 361–376. doi: 10.1002/bdm.697

738 Frank, D. A., Slovic, P., & Vastfjall, D. (2011). "Statistics don't bleed": Rhetorical psychology, presence, and psychic numbing in genocide pedagogy. JAC, 31, 609–624.

732 Gregory, R., Peters, E., & Slovic, P. (2011). Making decisions about prescription drugs: A study of doctor-patient communication. Health, Risk, and Society, 13, 347-371.

751 Kahan, D. M., Wittlin, M., Peters, E., Slovic, P., Ouellette, L. L., Braman, D., & Mandel, G. (2011). The tragedy of the risk-perception commons: Culture conflict, rationality conflict, and climate change (Cultural Cognition Project Working Paper No. 89). Available at the Social Science Research Network.

773 Peters, E., Dieckmann, N. F., & Weller, J. (2011). Age differences in complex decision making. In K. W. Schaie & S. L. Willis (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging (7th ed., pp. 133–151). Burlington, MA: Academic Press.

735 Slovic, P. (2011, May 11). The psychology of intervention: Why we need a villain. The Ottawa Citizen, p. A10.

695 Arvai, J. L., & Froschauer, A. (2010). Good decisions, bad decisions: The interaction of process and outcome in evaluations of decision quality. Journal of Risk Research. 13, 845-859.

692 Kahan, D. M., Braman, D., Monahan, J., Callahan, L., & Peters, E. (2010). Cultural cognition and public policy: The case of outpatient commitment laws. Law and Human Behavior, 34, 118-140.

694 Rubaltelli, E., Pasini, G., Rumiati, R., Olsen, R., & Slovic, P. (2010). The influence of affective reactions on investment decisions. The Journal of Behavioral Finance. 11, 168-176.

684 Rubaltelli, E., Rumiati, R., & Slovic, P. (2010). Do ambiguity avoidance and the comparative ignorance hypothesis depend on people's affective reactions? Journal of Risk and Uncertainty. 40, 243-254.

664 Slovic, P. (2010). The more who die, the less we care. In E. Michel-Kerjan & P. Slovic (Eds.), The irrational economist: Decision making in a dangerous world (pp. 30-40). New York: Public Affairs Press.

733 Slovic, P., & Västfjäll, D. (2010). Affect, moral intuition, and risk. Psychological Inquiry, 21, 387–398.

696 Wilson, R. S., & Arvai, J. L. (2010). Why less is more: Exploring affect-based value judgment. Journal of Risk Research. 13, 399-409.

645 Dickert, S., & Slovic, P. (2009). Attentional mechanisms in the generation of sympathy. Judgment and Decision Making, 4, 297-306. Download

677 Hart, P. S., & Leiserowitz, A. A. (2009). Finding the teachable moment: An analysis of information-seeking behavior on global warming related websites during the release of The Day After Tomorrow. Environmental Communication, 3, 355–366.

631 Olsen, R. A., (2009). Perceptions of financial risk: Axioms and affect. ICFAI Journal of Behavioral Finance, 5, 58-80.

473 Peters, E., Dieckmann, N. F., Västfjäll, D., Mertz, C. K., Slovic, P., & Hibbard, J. H. (2009). Bringing meaning to numbers: The impact of evaluative categories on decisions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 15, 213-227.

622 Weller, J. A., & Watson, D. (2009). Friend or foe? Differential use of the self-based heurisitic as a function of relationship satisfaction. Journal of Personality, 77, 731-760.

628 Diefenbach, M. A., Miller, S. M., Porter, M., Peters, E., Stefanek, M., & Leventhal, H. (2008). Emotions and health behavior: A self-regulation perspective. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones, & L. F. Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (3rd ed., pp. 645-660). New York: The Guilford Press.

620 Peters, E., Diefenbach, M. A., Hess, T. M., & Västfjäll, D. (2008). Age differences in dual information-processing modes: Implications for cancer decision making. Cancer, 113, 3556-3567.

619 Rubaltelli, E., & Slovic, P. (2008). Affective reactions and context-dependent processing of negations. Judgment and Decision Making, 3, 607-618. Retrieved December 30, 2008, from

605 Västfjäll, D., Peters, E., & Slovic, P. (2008). Affect, risk perception and future optimism after the tsunami disaster. Judgment and Decision Making, 3, 64-72.

612 Arvai, J. L. (2007). Rethinking of risk communication: Lessons from the decision sciences. Tree Genetics & Genomes, 3, 173-185.

575 Bateman, I., Dent, S., Peters, E., Slovic, P., & Starmer, C. (2007). The affect heuristic and the attractiveness of simple gambles. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 20, 365-380.

597 Kahan, D. M., Slovic, P., Braman, D., Gastil, J., & Cohen, G. L. (2007, March). Affect, values, and nanotechnology risk perceptions: An experimental investigation (GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No. 261) Retrieved from

560 Leiserowitz, A. A. (2007). Communicating the risks of global warming: American risk perceptions, affective images and interpretive communities. In S. C. Moser & L. Dilling (Eds.), Creating a climate for change: Communicating climate change and facilitating social change (pp. 44-63). New York: Cambridge University Press.

598 Lichtenstein, S., Gregory, R., & Irwin, J. (2007). What's bad is easy: Taboo values, affect, and cognition. Judgment and Decision Making, 2, 169-188. Retrieved from

682 Marx S. M., Weber, E. U., Orlove, B. S., Leiserowitz, A., Krantz, D. H., Roncoli, C., & Phillips, J. (2007). Communication and mental processes: Experiential and analytic processing of uncertain climate information. Global Environmental Change, 17, 47-58.

585 Peters, E., Hess, TAdult age differences in dual information processes: Implications for the role of affective and deliberative processes in older adults’ decision making. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2, 1-23.

568 Peters, E., Romer, D., Slovic, P., Jamieson, K. H., Wharfield, L. M., Mertz, C. K., & Carpenter, S. M. (2007). The impact and acceptability of Canadian-style cigarette warning labels among U.S. smokers and nonsmokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 9, 473-481.

577 Peters, E., & Slovic, P. (2007). Affective asynchrony and the measurement of the affective attitude component. Cognition and Emotion, 21, 300-329.

613 Rivers, L., & Arvai, J. (2007). Win some, lose some: The effect of chronic losses on decision making under risk. Journal of Risk Research, 10, 1085-1099.

592 Slovic, P. (2007, March 13). Numbed by numbers. Foreign Policy. Retrieved from

580 Slovic, P. (2007). "If I look at the mass I will never act": Psychic numbing and genocide. Judgment and Decision Making, 2, 79-95. Retrieved April 24, 2007, from

609 Slovic, P. (2007). Affect, reason, and mere hunches. Journal of Law, Economics and Policy, 4, 191-211.

648 Svenson, O., Salo, I., & van de Loo, K. (2007). Memories of real-life decisions. Memory, 15, 205-220.

602 Weller, J. A., Levin, I. P., Shiv, B., & Bechara, A. (2007). Neural correlates of adaptive decision making for risky gains and losses. Psychological Science 18, 958-964.

589 Kahan, D. M., & Slovic, P. (2006). Cultural evaluations of risk: “Values” or “blunders”? Harvard Law Review, 119, 166–172.

557 Leiserowitz, A. A. (2006). Climate change risk perception and policy preferences: The role of affect, imagery, and values. Climatic Change, 77, 45–72.

572 Lorenzoni, I., Leiserowitz, A., de Franca Doria, M., Poortinga, W., & Pidgeon, N. F. (2006). Cross-national comparisons of image associations with "global warming" and "climate change" among laypeople in the United States of America and Great Britain. Journal of Risk Research, 9, 265-281.

518 Peters, E. (2006). The functions of affect in the construction of preferences. In S. Lichtenstein & P. Slovic (Eds.), The construction of preference (pp. 454-463). New York: Cambridge University Press.

552 Peters, E. (2006). Numbers are just numbers [Commentary on the chapter “Social norms, rules of thumb, and retirement: Evidence for rationality in retirement planning]. In K.W. Shaie & L. L. Carstensen (Eds.), Social structures, aging and self-regulation in the elderly (pp. 175-188). New York: Springer.

566 Peters, E., Lipkus, I., & Diefenbach, M. A. (2006). The functions of affect in health communications and in the construction of health preferences. Journal of Communication, 56, S140-S162.

564 Peters, E., McCaul, K. D., Stefanek, M., & Nelson, W. (2006). A heuristics approach to understanding cancer risk perception: Contributions from judgment and decision-making research. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 31, 45-52.

562 Peters, E., Västfjäll, D., Gärling, T., & Slovic, P. (2006). Affect and decision making: A “hot” topic. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 19, 79-85.

553 Peters, E., Västfjäll, D., Slovic, P., Mertz, C. K., Mazzocco, K., & Dickert, S. (2006). Numeracy and decision making. Psychological Science, 17, 407-413.

590 Slovic, P., & Peters, E. (2006). Risk perception and affect. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15, 322-325.

547 Wilson, R. S., & Arvai, J. L. (2006). When less is more: How affect influences preferences when comparing low and high-risk options. Journal of Risk Research, 9, 165-178.

512 Finucane, M. L., & Satterfield, T. A. (2005). Risk as narrative values: A theoretical framework for facilitating the biotechnology debate. International Journal of Biotechnology, 17, 128-146.

559 Peters, E., & Västfjäll, D. (2005, November). Affective processes in decision making by older adults. Paper presented at the National Research Council Workshop on Decision Making by Older Adults, Washington, DC.

538 Slovic, P., Peters, E., Finucane, M. L., & MacGregor, D. G. (2005). Affect, risk, and decision making. Health Psychology, 24, S35-S40

516 Slovic, S., & Slovic, P. (2004/2005). Numbers and nerves: Toward an affective apprehension of environmental risk. Whole Terrain, 13, 14-18.

491 Gregory, R. S. (2004). Valuing risk management choices. In T. McDaniels & M. J. Small (Eds.), Risk analysis and society: An interdisciplinary characterization of the field (pp. 213-250). New York: Cambridge University Press.

513 Peters, E. M., Burraston, B., & Mertz, C. K. (2004). An emotion-based model of risk perception and stigma susceptibility: Cognitive appraisals of emotion, affective reactivity, worldviews, and risk perceptions in the generation of technological stigma. Risk Analysis, 24, 1349-1367.

527 Savadori, L., Savio, S., Nicotra, E., Rumiati, R., Finucane, M., & Slovic, P. (2004). Expert and public perception of risk from biotechnology. Risk Analysis, 24, 1289-1299.

519 Slovic, P. (2004). What's fear got to do with it? It's affect we need to worry about. Missouri Law Review, 69, 971-990.

502 Slovic, P., Finucane, M. L., Peters, E., & MacGregor, D. G. (2004). Risk as analysis and risk as feelings: Some thoughts about affect, reason, risk, and rationality. Risk Analysis, 24(2), 1-12. (Download the December 2002 paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, New Orleans, LA. Download; 922K, PDF)

464 Finucane, M. L., Peters, E., & Slovic, P. (2003). Judgment and decision making: The dance of affect and reason. In S. L. Schneider & J. Shanteau (Eds.), Emerging perspectives on judgment and decision research (pp. 327-364) UK: Cambridge University Press.

507 Hibbard, J. H., Dubow, J. D., & Peters, E. (2003, May). Decision making in consumer-directed health plans (#2003-05). Washington, DC: AARP.

506 Peters, E., Slovic, P., & Gregory, R. (2003). The role of affect in the WTA/WTP disparity. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 16, 309-330.

504 Slovic, P. (2003). Affect, analysis, adolescence, and risk. In D. Romer (Ed.), Reducing adolescent risk: Toward an integrated approach. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

641 Slovic, P. (2003, December). A difficult balance: Risk perception and risk communication in an age of terrorism. Paper prepared for the Terrorism Task Force of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, San Juan, Puerto Rico. (Download here; 552 KB, pdf)

498 Slovic, P., Finucane, M. L., Peters, E., & MacGregor, D. G. (2002). Rational actors or rational fools? Implications of the affect heuristic for behavioral economics. Journal of Socio-Economics, 31, 329-342. Download a later, revised version of this article (1.2MB, PDF)

454 Slovic, P., Finucane, M., Peters, E., & MacGregor, D. G. (2002). The affect heuristic. In T. Gilovich, D. Griffin, & D. Kahneman (Eds.), Heuristics and biases: The psychology of intuitive judgment (pp. 397-420). New York: Cambridge University Press.

497 Svenson, O., & Slovic, P. (2002, February). Can word associations and affect be used as indicators of differentiation and consolidation in decision making? (Report No. 02-04). Eugene, OR: Decision Research. Download (pdf, 141 kb)

453 Satterfield, T. (2001). In search of value literacy: Suggestions for the elicitation of environmental values. Environmental Values, 10, 331-359.

416 Finucane, M. L., Alhakami, A., Slovic, P., & Johnson, S. M. (2000). The affect heuristic in judgments of risks and benefits. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 13, 1-17.

438 Peters, E., & Slovic, P. (2000). The springs of action: Affective and analytical information processing in choice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 1465-1475.

462 Slovic, P. (2000). Rational actors and rational fools: The influence of affect on judgment and decision-making. Roger Williams University Law Review, 6, 163-212.

399 Gregory, R. (1999). Identifying environmental values. In V. H. Dale & M. R. English (Eds.), Tools to aid environmental decision making (pp. 32-58). New York: Springer-Verlag.

370 Slovic, P. (1999). Trust, emotion, sex, politics, and science: Surveying the risk-assessment battlefield. Risk Analysis, 19(4), 689-701. Originally published in M. H. Bazerman, D. M. Messick, A. E. Tenbrunsel, & K. A. Wade-Benzoni (Eds.), Environment, ethics, and behavior (pp. 277-313). San Francisco: New Lexington, 1997. Revised version in The University of Chicago Legal Forum, 1997, pp. 59-99.

401 Slovic, P., MacGregor, D. G., & Peters, E. (1998). Imagery, affect, and decision making (Report No. 98-1). Eugene, OR: Decision Research. (Download; 8.2MB, PDF)

349 Peters, E., & Slovic, P. (1996). The role of affect and worldviews as orienting dispositions in the perception and acceptance of nuclear power. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26(16), 1427-1453.

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